Alcatraz Island: A Journey Through History and Mystery

Alcatraz Island, often referred to simply as The Rock, is a small, rugged island located in the San Francisco Bay, California, approximately 1.25 miles (2 km) offshore from the city.

Spanning 22 acres, the island is famous for its rich and complex history, having served variously as a military fortification, a military prison, a federal penitentiary, and the site of a historic Native American occupation.

Today, Alcatraz Island is managed by the National Park Service as part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, welcoming thousands of visitors each year who come to explore its storied past, take in the breathtaking views of San Francisco, and observe the island’s unique flora and fauna.

Alcatraz Island On The Rock
Alcatraz Island photos f11photo

Alcatraz Island history

The history of Alcatraz Island is a fascinating and multifaceted one, reflecting various eras and events in American history.

Its strategic location in the San Francisco Bay made it an ideal site for military and federal uses, while its later transformation into a national park and historic site allows it to serve as a reminder of these significant periods.

Early history and military fortification

Before the European settlers arrived, the island was used by indigenous people, possibly for isolation of tribal members who violated community rules.

In the mid-19th century, the U.S. military recognized the strategic importance of Alcatraz and constructed the first fortress on the island, completed in 1859. The island was used primarily for defense purposes, with its cannons aimed at protecting the entrance to the bay.

Military prison era

In the late 19th century, Alcatraz was repurposed as a military prison, taking advantage of its isolation to confine deserters, insubordinate soldiers, and other military offenders.

During this time, many improvements were made to the island, including the construction of new cell blocks and the establishment of a prison system.

Federal prison era (1934-1963)

Alcatraz’s most infamous period began when it was converted into a maximum-security federal penitentiary in 1934.

Housing some of America’s most notorious criminals, including Al Capone, George “Machine Gun” Kelly, and Robert “Birdman” Stroud, the prison gained a reputation for being inescapable and highly secure.

The harsh living conditions, combined with the island’s isolation, made it an ideal location to incarcerate the most dangerous and troublesome inmates.

Throughout its 29 years of operation, the prison witnessed multiple escape attempts, with the most famous one occurring in 1962 involving Frank Morris and the Anglin brothers, whose fate remains a mystery to this day.

Native American occupation and protest (1969-1971)

After the closure of the federal prison in 1963, the island was occupied by a group of Native American activists from 1969 to 1971, protesting against the U.S. government’s policies towards indigenous people and seeking the return of native lands.

This occupation brought national attention to the plight of Native Americans and led to significant policy changes, marking a turning point in the fight for indigenous rights in the United States.

Transformation into a national park

Following the end of the occupation, Alcatraz Island was transferred to the National Park Service in 1972, becoming part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area.

Alcatraz Island Golden Gate Bridge
Golden Gate Bridge from Prison Iain Mcpherson

Today, the island serves as a popular tourist attraction, offering visitors a glimpse into its fascinating history, as well as an opportunity to learn about its significance in American history.

Must-see locations

When visiting Alcatraz Island, there are several must-see locations that provide insight into the history and daily life of the prison, as well as the island’s broader significance. Here are the key points of interest:

Cell Block: The main cell house is a crucial stop on any tour of Alcatraz. It contains four cell blocks (A, B, C, and D) with three tiers of cells each, where inmates lived during their incarceration.

Alcatraz Island Escape Room
Christopher Reynolds
Alcatraz Island Alcatraz Tours

Visitors can see the standard cells, as well as the solitary confinement cells in D-Block. The infamous 1962 escape attempt by Frank Morris and the Anglin brothers is highlighted in this area, with examples of the dummy heads and other escape materials on display.

Dining Hall: The Dining Hall, also known as the Mess Hall, was where inmates ate their meals.

Alcatraz Island Dining Hall
Peter Hickey

This large room still contains the original tables, with small metal stools attached, as well as the serving area where food was distributed. The Dining Hall was also the site of occasional conflicts and violent incidents, given the large number of inmates gathering in one place.

Library: Alcatraz’s library played a significant role in the daily lives of many inmates, as it provided a source of education and mental stimulation during their confinement.

The library contained thousands of books, ranging from fiction to textbooks, and offered educational programs for inmates looking to further their knowledge or learn new skills.

Recreation Yard: The Recreation Yard was the primary outdoor area where inmates could exercise, socialize, and participate in various sports and activities during their designated recreation time.

Visitors can still see the handball and baseball areas, as well as the remnants of the weightlifting equipment.

Lighthouse: The Alcatraz Island Lighthouse, first built in 1854 and later replaced in 1909, was the first lighthouse on the West Coast of the United States.

While not open to the public, the lighthouse remains an important historical landmark on the island and can be viewed from various points during your visit.

Warden’s House: The ruins of the Warden’s House, which was once an elegant residence for the prison warden and his family, are now a stark reminder of the passage of time.

Alcatraz Island Wardens House
Brendan Kiely

The house was destroyed by a fire in 1970, and only the exterior walls remain standing. Visitors can observe the ruins from the outside and imagine what life was like for the warden and his family, living in such close proximity to the prison.

Parade Grounds: The Parade Grounds, situated on the southern side of the island, were once used for military drills and ceremonies during the island’s time as a military fortification. Today, the area serves as an open space that offers visitors stunning views of the San Francisco skyline, the Golden Gate Bridge, and the surrounding bay.

Exploring these must-see locations on Alcatraz Island will give you a comprehensive understanding of the island’s history, from its early days as a military installation to its time as a notorious federal penitentiary and its eventual transformation into a national park.

Daily life in prison

Daily life in Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary was marked by strict routines, discipline, and harsh living conditions. The prison was designed to house some of the most dangerous and troublesome inmates in the United States, and the security measures and daily routines reflected this purpose.

Daily routine: Inmates at Alcatraz followed a regimented daily schedule. A typical day began with a wake-up call at 6:30 am, followed by morning counts and breakfast at 6:55 am.

After breakfast, inmates would either return to their cells for cleanup or proceed to their work assignments, which could include various jobs such as laundry, kitchen duty, or work in the industries building (e.g., the mat shop, woodworking, or metal shop).

Alcatraz Island Security Room
Peter Hickey
Alcatraz Island Revir
Adrian Stati

Lunch was served around 11:20 am, and work resumed after a brief break until 4:15 pm. Dinner was served around 4:25 pm, followed by an evening count and recreation time in the cell house or the prison yard.

The inmates were locked in their cells for the night at 9:20 pm, and lights were turned off at 9:30 pm.

Living conditions: The living conditions in Alcatraz were austere and designed to minimize inmate comfort. Each inmate was assigned a single cell measuring approximately 5 feet by 9 feet, equipped with a cot, a sink, a small table, and a toilet.

Alcatraz Island What To See Prison
Adrian Stati

The cells were located in the main cell house, which was divided into four blocks (A, B, C, and D), with each block containing three tiers of cells. Cells in Blocks B and C were the standard accommodations, while Block D housed solitary confinement cells and a few slightly larger cells for inmates with good behavior.

The prison was known for its strict “silence rule,” which prohibited inmates from talking to one another outside of designated times. This rule was later relaxed in the 1940s.

Recreation: Limited recreational activities were allowed at Alcatraz to help inmates pass the time and maintain their physical and mental health. Inmates could participate in activities such as playing chess, checkers, or cards in the cell house during their leisure time.

They could also use the prison library, which housed thousands of books and offered educational programs. The recreation yard, accessible during designated hours, provided an opportunity for inmates to engage in outdoor activities such as handball, baseball, or weightlifting.

Inmates were also allowed to paint or create handicrafts in their cells as long as the materials were approved by the prison authorities.

Visitation and communication: Contact with the outside world was highly restricted at Alcatraz. Inmates were allowed one visit per month, with each visit lasting no longer than one hour.

Conversations between inmates and their visitors were closely monitored, and physical contact was not permitted. Inmates could send and receive a limited number of letters, but all correspondence was subject to inspection and censorship by prison officials.

Overall, daily life at Alcatraz was characterized by strict discipline, limited privileges, and a highly controlled environment.

The prison’s focus on isolation, both physical and social, aimed to deter inmates from causing trouble and served as a warning to other criminals about the consequences of breaking the law.

Notorious inmates

Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary housed some of the most notorious and dangerous criminals in American history during its operation from 1934 to 1963.

The prison’s isolated location, strict security measures, and reputation for harsh living conditions made it an ideal facility for incarcerating high-profile inmates and those who had caused problems at other prisons.

Here are some of the most infamous inmates who served time on Alcatraz Island:

  • Al Capone (Inmate #85) – Alphonse “Al” Capone was a notorious gangster and crime boss who led a criminal empire during the Prohibition era in Chicago. Convicted of tax evasion in 1931, Capone was transferred to Alcatraz in 1934 after attempts to bribe guards and manipulate the system at his previous prison. He served four and a half years on Alcatraz before being transferred to another facility due to his declining health.
  • George “Machine Gun” Kelly (Inmate #117) – George Kelly was a notorious kidnapper and bank robber, known for his use of a Thompson submachine gun. He gained notoriety after the high-profile kidnapping of an oil tycoon in 1933. Captured and convicted, Kelly was sentenced to life in prison and spent 17 years on Alcatraz before being transferred to another facility.
  • Robert “Birdman” Stroud (Inmate #594) – Robert Stroud, also known as the “Birdman of Alcatraz,” was a convicted murderer who became an expert on birds and bird diseases during his time in prison. Despite his nickname, Stroud was not allowed to keep birds during his 17-year stay at Alcatraz. He was transferred to the island due to violent behavior at his previous prison and spent a total of 54 years in federal prisons, with 42 of those years in solitary confinement.
  • Alvin “Creepy” Karpis (Inmate #325) – Alvin Karpis was a prominent member of the Barker-Karpis Gang, involved in various criminal activities, including bank robberies, kidnappings, and murders. Karpis was one of the longest-serving inmates on Alcatraz, spending 26 years on the island before being transferred to another prison.

These notorious inmates are just a few of the many criminals who served time on Alcatraz Island, contributing to the prison’s reputation as one of the most secure and challenging facilities in the United States.

Escape attempts

During its 29 years of operation as a federal penitentiary, Alcatraz Island was considered one of the most secure and inescapable prisons in the United States.

The island’s isolated location, strong currents, and cold waters of the San Francisco Bay, combined with its strict security measures, made escape attempts incredibly difficult.

However, this did not deter some inmates from trying. Here are some of the most notable escape attempts from Alcatraz:

  • April 1936 – Joseph Bowers (Inmate #210): Bowers was the first inmate to attempt an escape from Alcatraz. While working at the incinerator, he tried to climb a fence to reach the shoreline. He was shot by a guard and fell to his death.
  • December 1937 – Theodore Cole and Ralph Roe (Inmates #293 and #294): Cole and Roe, both convicted bank robbers, escaped from the prison’s mat shop during a thick fog. They managed to cut through the iron bars of a window and reach the shoreline. Their fate remains unknown, as their bodies were never found, but they are presumed to have drowned in the bay.
  • May 1946 – The “Battle of Alcatraz”: Led by Bernard Coy (Inmate #635), a group of six inmates attempted a violent escape that resulted in a two-day siege involving gunfire and hostages. The failed escape attempt led to the deaths of three inmates and two guards, with several others injured.
  • September 1958 – Aaron Burgett and Clyde Johnson (Inmates #1279 and #1465): While on trash detail, Burgett and Johnson overpowered a guard and attempted to swim to freedom. Johnson was quickly recaptured, while Burgett’s body was found several weeks later, drowned.
  • June 1962 – Frank Morris and John and Clarence Anglin (Inmates #1441, #1476, and #1485): Arguably the most famous escape attempt from Alcatraz, Morris and the Anglin brothers crafted an elaborate plan involving dummy heads, makeshift tools, and a raft made from raincoats. They managed to escape their cells and the prison building, but their fate remains a mystery, as they were never found. Some believe they successfully made it to the mainland, while others speculate they drowned in the cold and treacherous waters of the bay.

In total, there were 14 escape attempts involving 36 inmates during Alcatraz’s time as a federal penitentiary.

While most escapees were either caught, killed, or presumed drowned, the 1962 attempt by Morris and the Anglin brothers continues to intrigue people due to its uncertain outcome.

Tips for planning your visit to Alcatraz Island

Best time to visit

The best time to visit Alcatraz Island depends on your preferences for weather and crowds.

The peak tourist season in San Francisco runs from May to October, with the warmest and sunniest weather. During this time, you can expect larger crowds and may need to book your tickets well in advance.

The months of March, April, and November offer a balance between pleasant weather and fewer tourists, making them ideal for those who prefer to avoid peak crowds.

Winter months (December to February) are the least crowded but may have colder and wetter weather.

Weather considerations

San Francisco’s climate is characterized by mild temperatures and microclimates, leading to varied weather conditions throughout the city and its surroundings.

Alcatraz Island can be cooler and windier than the mainland due to its location in the bay. Be prepared for sudden weather changes by dressing in layers and bringing a light jacket or windbreaker.

Additionally, comfortable and sturdy walking shoes are essential, as the island’s terrain can be uneven and steep in some areas.

Duration of the trip

A typical visit to Alcatraz Island, including the ferry ride and the Cellhouse Audio Tour, lasts around 2.5 to 3 hours.

If you wish to explore the island more thoroughly, participate in ranger-led programs, or take a behind-the-scenes or night tour, you may want to allocate 4 to 5 hours for your visit.

Keep in mind that the last ferry back to the mainland departs in the late afternoon or early evening, depending on the season, so plan your trip accordingly.

Ticket information

Tickets for Alcatraz Island can be purchased through Alcatraz Cruises, the official and exclusive provider of ferry services to the island.

Ticket prices vary depending on the type of tour you choose (day tour, night tour, behind-the-scenes tour) and the age of the visitors.

It’s highly recommended to book your tickets well in advance, especially during peak tourist seasons, as they can sell out quickly. Tickets can be purchased online through the Alcatraz Cruises website or by phone.

Where is the Alcatraz Island and how to get there?

Perched in the middle of the turquoise San Francisco Bay, framed by the mesmerizing silhouette of its concrete jungle and the captivating arch of the massive Golden Gate Bridge, lies Alcatraz Island.

Whether it is its evocative function as a military fortification or its notorious designation as a federal penitentiary, Alcatraz Island remains an indelible, intriguing chapter in America’s history books.

To reach Alcatraz Island, visitors must use one of the available boat transportation options, as there are no bridges or tunnels connecting the island to the mainland.

Ferry services

The primary and most popular way to reach Alcatraz Island is by taking a ferry from San Francisco. Alcatraz Cruises is the official and exclusive provider of ferry services to the island, operating from Pier 33, also known as Alcatraz Landing.

Alcatraz Island Ferry
Alcatraz Island tours MarkCjC

The ferries run multiple times daily, with schedules varying depending on the season and weather conditions. It’s essential to book your tickets in advance, as they often sell out, especially during peak tourist seasons. The ferry ticket typically includes access to the island and the audio tour.

Private boat charters

For visitors looking for a more personalized and exclusive experience, private boat charters are available to take you to Alcatraz Island.

Several companies in San Francisco offer private charter services, allowing you to customize your trip and explore the island at your own pace.

Keep in mind that private charters can be more expensive than the regular ferry service, and you will still need to obtain tickets to access the island and its attractions.

Regardless of your chosen transportation method, the boat ride to Alcatraz Island offers a unique opportunity to enjoy the beautiful scenery of the San Francisco Bay and to capture memorable photos of the iconic landmarks along the way.


As you walk the corridors of the former prison, listen to the stories of infamous inmates, and take in the breathtaking views of the surrounding bay, you can’t help but reflect on the island’s storied past and its transformation into a national park.

The island’s natural beauty and the flourishing wildlife coexist with remnants of a harsher time, creating a fascinating contrast that offers valuable lessons about resilience and the human spirit.

Visiting Alcatraz Island is an unforgettable experience that leaves a lasting impression. The rich and multifaceted history of the island, combined with its unique location in the heart of the San Francisco Bay, provides an opportunity to delve into the past and gain a deeper understanding of the significant events and personalities that shaped American history.

No matter your interests, a visit to Alcatraz Island is a truly enriching and thought-provoking experience that will stay with you long after you leave its shores.